17 Types Of LARGE Birds In Virginia (ID Guide With Photos)
Did you recently come across a large bird in the state of Virginia, and want to know what species it was?
Identifying big birds found in Virginia is not as easy as it might seem, since there are many bird species in the Old Dominion State that are on the large side.
To help you identify the bird you saw, we’ll cover the most common large birds of Virginia in this article.
What are the types of large birds in Virginia?
The 17 types of large birds that can be seen in Virginia are:
- Great Egret
- Great Blue Heron
- Snowy Egret
- Double-crested Cormorant
- Caspian Tern
- Common Loon
- Bald Eagle
- Golden Eagle
- Turkey Vulture
- Black Vulture
- Red-tailed Hawk
- Great Horned Owl
- Canada Goose
- Tundra Swan
- Brown Pelican
- Great Black-backed Gull
While many of these big birds are year-round residents of Virginia, some only occur in the state during the winter, as migratory birds that spend the cold months in Virginia.
Yet other birds are summer visitors during the breeding season, and some are scarce vagrants that are rarely seen in the state (more on that below).
Now let’s dive into the details, and take a closer look at each of these species in order to get the full scoop:
Scientific name: Ardea alba
The Great Egret has a range that spans nearly the whole planet, and can be found on almost all continents.
This heron is one of Virginia’s biggest birds and is a scarce visitor during spring and fall migration. It is all white, and has long black legs and feet along with a thick, yellow bill.
During the summer breeding seasons, the Great Egret grows a plume on its back that extends all the way to the tip of its tail.
It lives in both saltwater and freshwater habitats, and often nests in large colonies on the banks of marshes, lakes, and rivers.
Great Egrets forage in any type of shallow water in Virginia, including ponds, lakes, and rivers, as well as flooded areas.
Outside of the breeding season it is less common, but where it occurs it can be seen in large flocks. This species is one of the white birds that can be seen in Virginia.
Great Blue Heron
Scientific name: Ardea herodias
The Great Blue Heron is one of the most common herons in Virginia, where it can be seen year round.
With a wingspan of up to 6 feet, this heron is one of Virginia’s largest birds. It is almost entirely blue gray, except for a white throat and eye stripe, as well as dark gray wing feathers.
This enormous blue bird in Virginia likes to hunt for small fish by wading in the shallows of estuaries, mud flats and marshes along the seaboard.
It waits patiently for a suitably sized fish to come close enough to be grabbed with its long, yellow bill.
Scientific name: Egretta thula
The Snowy Egret has become an increasingly common breeding bird in Virginia.
This is due to aggressive conservation efforts that were necessary because this Egret species was systematically hunted in previous centuries.
This white heron stands out due to its slim black bill and bright area between the eyes and nostrils. It has long legs and yellow feet, which distinguish it from other herons.
In adult birds, the feet are a brilliant golden yellow, while the legs are totally black. It is thought that the brightly colored feet help to attract small fish and other prey.
The legs of juvenile birds have a predominant greenish yellow color, with some black areas on the front of the leg.
It is found in practically all types of wetland environments, from small ponds to saltwater and everything in between.
During the summer, the Snowy Egret is a rare to relatively common breeding bird in the state.
It is much more common during the winter months, when large numbers can be observed in coastal Virginia.
Scientific name: Phalacrocorax auritus
The Double-crested Cormorant is a large, dark waterbird with a long neck and blue eyes. It is a summer visitor in Virginia, and is commonly found on the shores of Lake Erie.
This cormorant likes to gather in large flocks that roost on trees close to water. It is a skilled diver and hunts fish with its large, hooked bill.
When a group of cormorants flies together, they like to form up in a V shaped formation.
Often these V-shaped formations can be seen in the evening, when the birds fly to their roosting spots in Virginia.
Scientific name: Hydroprogne caspia
The Caspian tern is the largest tern species in the world, and a rare summer visitor and breeding bird in Virginia.
It superficially resembles the Forster’s Tern, but it is a much bigger bird and has a thicker bill, broader wings, and a less forked tail.
Also, during winter the Caspian Tern doesn’t lose its black cap completely, but always retains a streaked, dark crown.
Forster’s Terns, on the other hand, lose their cap entirely during winter, which becomes completely white.
The Caspian Tern is not only a skilled hunter, but this bird also steals food from other terns and gulls. It catches fish by diving into the water with astonishing precision.
The Caspian Tern breeds in freshwater habitats in Canada and northern USA, and winters in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico.
Scientific name: Gavia immer
If you spotted a black waterbird with white dots, it is most likely the Common Loon (also known as the Great Northern Diver).
These water birds breed in northern areas of North America and can be seen in northern Virginia during the summer.
They have big rounded heads with sharp beaks that resemble a dagger.
In the summer months, the birds have black heads, white chests, and lots of white spots on their black-colored plumage. In the winter or autumn months, their color dulls and turns into a pale gray.
The common loon is a fantastic diver and is super stealthy when it hunts underwater, allowing it to sneak up on fish without even a splash. It can dive to depths of up to two-hundred fifty feet.
To top that off, these birds can stay submerged for up to five minutes and even swallow their prey while they are still underwater.
They have a wingspan of between forty and fifty inches and can live for up to thirty years of age.
Scientific name: Pandion haliaetus
The Osprey is one of the largest Virginia birds of prey, and with a wingspan of up to 69 in (5.5 ft) it resembles an eagle in size.
It is usually easy to identify the Osprey due white belly and chest, which contrast with its blackish gray upperparts and black wrist patches on its lower wings.
This Virginia bird is the only raptor species that plunges into the water in order to catch fish, often becoming entirely submerged in water as it attempts to grab a fish with its feet.
Ospreys are almost always found close to water, except during migration, when they will cross areas without water.
It is a common breeding bird and summer visitor in Virginia, where it is most commonly found along the shore of Lake Erie.
Scientific name: Haliaeetus leucocephalus
With a wingspan of up to 8 feet, the Bald Eagle is a huge raptor, and impossible to miss if you spot it soaring in the Old Dominion State.
Apart from its size, it is also one of the most easily recognizable birds in Virginia, due to its white head and tail, which contrast sharply with the uniformly dark brown body.
Juvenile birds are dark brown all over, with light irregular streaks all over the body, as well as a buff white belly.
This huge bird of prey is a widespread breeding bird in eastern Virginia, and is also found in other parts of the state outside of the breeding season.
The Virginia Bald Eagle population has undergone a dramatic recovery in the past decades, growing from 20 pairs in the 1970s to over 1000 pairs in 2016.
Bald Eagles spend a lot of their time soaring on thermal currents with their wings held flat. They feed on fish, birds, and small mammals, although a big part of their diet consists of carrion.
Scientific name: Aquila chrysaetos
The Golden Eagle is one the most impressive eagle species in North America, and is a breeding bird in the western parts of North America.
In Virginia state, the Golden Eagle is a rare visitor that can be seen during spring or fall migration.
Golden Eagles can be distinguished from Bald Eagles by their lack of white coloration on their heads.
The Golden Eagle is one of few circumpolar raptor species, as it can be found in both the New World and the Old World.
Scientific name: Cathartes aura
The Turkey Vulture is the largest vulture species breeding in Virginia, and can reach a wingspan of up to 6 feet.
It is a big black raptor with a red head, and dark gray rear margins on their wings, which can be seen in flight.
A soaring Turkey Vulture is easily identifiable due to the fact that it holds its wings in an upright V shape.
This big bird is a summer visitor and breeding bird in Virginia, where it favors open country interspersed with woodland.
Similar to other vulture species in Virginia, this bird is specialized in feeding on carrion, and will often congregate in flocks around roadkill.
While Turkey Vultures look superficially similar to a Black Vultures, the latter are only observed in Virginia very rarely.
Scientific name: Coragyps atratus
Black Vultures are breeding birds throughout Virginia, although they aren’t as common as Turkey Vultures.
Black Vultures are almost entirely black, except for white wing tips that can be seen from below. They have a naked head with wrinkled, dark skin.
Adult Black Vultures that breed in Virginia remain in their breeding territories year-round, while immature birds often move around extensively, and may show up in areas without a breeding population of Black Vultures.
In contrast to Turkey Vultures, Black Vultures don’t have a keen sense of smell. Because of this, they often use Turkey Vultures as “scouts” to find roadkill, and then intimidate the smaller vulture species to chase away from the carrion.
Scientific name: Buteo jamaicensis
With a wingspan of up to 52 in (4.5 ft), the Red-tailed Hawk is the largest hawk species in Virginia.
It has variable coloration, ranging from dark brown to almost entirely white, but can be readily recognized by its rusty red tail.
This large hawk is common in open areas and even in cities. It is most often seen perched on roadside posts or fences, waiting for prey.
The Red-tailed Hawk is one of the most common hawk species in Virginia, and can be seen in southern parts of Virginia state year-round, while it is a migratory bird in northern Virginia.
It feeds on rodents and other small animals that it catches by swooping down from its perch when they venture out into the open.
Great Horned Owl
Scientific name: Bubo virginianus
With a wingspan up to 4 feet, the Great Horned Owl is the largest owl species breeding in Virginia. It is a large rufous brown bird with two tufts (also called horns) and big yellow eyes.
In Virginia, this owl starts its nesting very early in the year, laying its eggs in January or February.
It is almost entirely nocturnal, and can hunt in complete darkness by relying on its keen sense of hearing.
The Great Horned Owl doesn’t build its own nest, but instead occupies the nests of other large birds, such as herons or raptors.
It is found year-round throughout Virginia, and can be found in a wide variety of habitats in Virginia, from woodlands to urban areas.
This owl is a fierce hunter, catching birds up to the size of ducks, and mammals up to the size of squirrels, rabbits, and even young foxes.
Scientific name: Branta canadensis
The Canada Goose is one of the most easily recognizable aquatic birds, due to its white cheeks that contrast with its jet black neck and head.
They are breeding birds in Canada and northern States, and fly south every fall in large V formations that herald the start of the cold season.
Canada Geese are year-round residents in southern Virginia, while they are summer visitors in the northern part of the state.
These Geese like to forage on grain fields after they have been harvested, and are sometimes seen together with Snow Geese.
Scientific name: Cygnus columbianus
The Tundra Swan is a large breeding bird of northern Canada and northern Alaska. It is a winter visitor along the coast of Virginia, where it can be seen from October through March.
These white birds are among the largest waterfowl found in North America, and adults are entirely white with a black beak. They can be distinguished from Trumpeter Swans by the yellow area of skin between the eye and the bill.
In contrast to adults, juveniles are pale gray streaked with white. These swans feed in shallow water, where they use their long neck to reach for mollusks and aquatic vegetation.
Similar to geese, Tundra Swans also feed on leftover grains on harvested farmland.
They spend the winter in areas with lakes or rivers that are free of ice, and they are sometimes forced to fly further south in harsh winters, when all bodies of water freeze over in their primary wintering grounds.
Scientific name: Pelecanus occidentalis
Brown Pelicans are the most common pelicans found along the coast of Virginia, where they hunt fish by plunging head-first into the water.
Adult Brown Pelicans are grayish brown with a dark belly, and can be easily recognized by their massive bill.
While this pelican species was endangered a few decades ago due to pesticide poisoning, it has now recovered and is once more a breeding bird as well as a winter visitor in the Old Dominion state.
Great Black-backed Gull
Scientific name: Larus marinus
The Great Black-backed Gull is the largest seagull in the world. It is a breeding bird along the northern parts of the North American east coast.
This gull is easily recognizable by its huge size and dark blackish gray upperparts, which sets it apart from any other gulls in the area.
Due to its big size, this seagull is able to bully most other seabirds, and does so regularly in order to steal their food.
Great Black-backed Gulls are rare winter visitors along the coast of north Virginia.
They used to be an endangered species of birds in previous centuries due to the feather trade, but its population has rebounded, and it is a common sight once more.
What are the big black birds in Virginia?
The big black birds found in Virginia are Turkey Vultures, which have a wingspan up to 6 feet.
These black-colored vultures are commonly seen in Virginia soaring on thermal currents, or gathering in small groups at roadkill sites.
Another Virginia bird that’s relatively large and black is the American Crow. However, with a wingspan of 4 feet, it is significantly smaller than the Turkey Vulture.
What is the largest bird of prey in Virginia?
The largest bird of prey in Virginia is the Bald Eagle, which can reach a wingspan up to 8 feet.
Big Bald Eagles are always females, while males are somewhat smaller, only reaching a wingspan of up to 6.5 feet.
Fortunately this large and impressive raptor is an increasingly common sight in Virginia once more, and watching it soar high into the sky on thermal winds is a treat to be savored while bird watching in the Old Dominion State.
If you enjoyed this article, check out our guide to the yellow birds in Virginia.