12 Types Of HERONS In Texas (ID Guide With Photos)
Did you recently come across a heron in the state of Texas, and want to know what species it was?
Identifying herons in the Lone Star State is not as easy as it might seem, since there are many heron species in Texas (as well as closely related egret and bittern species).
To help you identify the bird you saw, we’ll cover the most common herons of Texas in this article.
What are the types of herons in Texas?
The 12 types of herons found in Texas are:
- Great Egret
- Great Blue Heron
- Little Blue Heron
- Snowy Egret
- Cattle Egret
- Green Heron
- Black-crowned Night-heron
- Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
- Tricolored Heron
- American Bittern
- Least Bittern
- Reddish Egret
While many of these herons are year round residents of Texas, others only occur in the state during the winter, as migratory birds that spend the cold months in Texas.
Yet other herons are summer visitors during the breeding season, and some are scarce vagrants that are rarely seen in Texas (more on that below).
Now let’s dive into the details, and take a closer look at each of these Texas herons:
Scientific name: Ardea alba
The Great Egret is one of the most common heron species in Texas, and outside of the state it has a range that spans nearly the whole planet.
This Texas bird is almost entirely white, except for its long, black legs and yellow beak.
During the spring and summer breeding seasons, the Great Egret grows a long white plume on its back that extends all the way to the tip of its tail.
This heron lives in both fresh and saltwater habitats, and often nests in large colonies on the shores of marshes, lakes, and rivers.
Great Egrets forage in any type of shallow water, including ponds, lakes, rivers, estuaries, as well as rice fields and other flooded areas.
In areas with shallow water, you can observe Great Egrets waiting patiently for their prey before striking with their long beak and spearing it.
Great Egrets build their nests in colonies. Most of the time, they are built high up in mature trees, often on islands, to keep ground predators from getting to the eggs.
This egret is especially prevalent in the eastern and central regions of Texas throughout the summer.
Outside of the breeding season it is less common, but where it occurs it can be seen in large flocks.
Great Blue Heron
Scientific name: Ardea herodias
The Great Blue Heron is one of the most common herons found in Texas, where it can be seen year round.
With a wingspan of up to 6 feet, this heron is one of Texas’s largest birds. It is almost entirely blue gray, except for a white throat and eye stripe, as well as dark gray wing feathers.
This enormous bird likes to hunt for small fish by wading in the shallows of estuaries, mud flats and marshes along the seaboard.
Great Blue Herons can be found in many wetland habitats. You can find them in both saltwater and freshwater marshes, flooded fields, mangrove swamps, and lake shorelines.
This heron spends a lot of time standing motionless in shallow water, where it waits patiently for a suitably sized fish to come close enough to be grabbed with its long, yellow bill.
Little Blue Heron
Scientific name: Egretta caerulea
While adult Little Blue Herons are slate blue, young birds are entirely white during their first year.
Juvenile Little Blue Herons can be distinguished from other white herons by their dark bill and green legs.
These small herons are common breeding birds of Texas that can be seen year-round along the coast, while they are summer visitors further inland.
During winter, the numbers of these herons swell along the Gulf Coast, due to an influx of birds from further north, which spend the winter months in Texas.
These herons feed on small fish, mollusks and crustaceans, with crayfish forming a large part of their diet.
They prefer aquatic habitats, where these birds hunt in the shallows, and they are rarely seen away from water.
Little Blue Herons build their nests out of sticks and in colonies. The female lays 4 to 6 eggs, and both parents take turns incubating the eggs for up to 25 days.
Scientific name: Egretta thula
The Snowy Egret is another bird with extensive white plumage that has become an increasingly common breeding bird in the eastern half of Texas.
This is due to aggressive conservation efforts that were necessary because this Egret species was systematically hunted in previous centuries.
This little white heron stands out due to its slim black bill and bright area between the eyes and nostrils.
In adult Snowy Egrets, the legs are totally black, which contrasts with their yellow feet. It is thought that the brightly colored feet help to attract small fish and other prey.
The legs of juvenile Snowy Egrets have a predominant greenish yellow color, with some black areas on the front of the leg.
This bird is found in practically all types of wetland environments, from small ponds to saltwater shorelines and everything in between.
Snowy Egrets feed on fish, crabs, snails, amphibians, and crayfish, which they find in shallow water.
These herons either remain completely still and wait for prey to approach, or they stir up the water with their feet to flush out prey to the surface.
The nests of these egrets can be found in trees or hidden among ground-level bushes. The female lays 3 to 6 eggs, which are subsequently incubated by both the male and female.
During the summer, the Snowy Egret is a rare to relatively common breeding bird in Texas.
This egret is much more common in Texas during the winter months, when large numbers can be observed in the coastal areas of Texas.
Scientific name: Bubulcus ibis
Smaller than Great Egrets, Cattle Egrets have shorter necks and are mostly white with streaks of brownish orange on the head, throat, and back.
The Cattle Egret is a relatively new species in the New World that originated in Europe and Africa.
Nobody knows how these herons crossed the Atlantic, but they were first discovered breeding in Brazil, and later in Texas, where these egrets first appeared in the 1950s.
Cattle Egrets have been very successful at colonizing the Americas, and are common breeding birds all over the southern states.
In contrast to other egrets and herons, Cattle Egrets regularly forage in dry habitats in Texas, including high altitude areas.
This is a small egret that is entirely white, except for the breeding season, when adults develop orange plumage on the back of their head, back, and chest.
The legs and the beak are yellow, but at the peak of the breeding season, these herons take on a ruddy hue.
This small heron inhabits a wide range of wetland ecosystems, ranging from shallow saltwater zones to freshwater ponds, swamps, and lakes.
In addition to wetlands, the Cattle Egret also does a significant amount of its foraging in dry areas, such as pastures, where it likes to follow cattle and feed on the insects disturbed by the livestock.
Scientific name: Butorides virescens
The Green Heron is a relatively common water bird in east Texas. It’s a medium-sized heron with an olive-green body and black wings.
These herons tend to live near water in Texas, so they’re often seen around lakes, rivers, ponds, or even swimming pools.
They eat fish, frogs, snails, small reptiles, amphibians, and crustaceans. They nest in trees or shrubs but sometimes build their nests on islands.
The Green Heron is usually silent except at dusk or dawn, when it makes its characteristic call, which sounds like “kreee.”
Green Herons usually build their nests out of thin twigs, and place them in the crowns of large trees close to water.
However, if suitable nesting trees are not available, these herons can also nest on the ground, usually underneath a bush.
Black-crowned Night Heron
Scientific name: Nycticorax nycticorax
The Black-crowned Night-Heron is true to its name, and is most active at dusk and during the night, when it forages for frogs and small fish in Texas wetlands.
These night-herons are common breeding birds and year-round residents in south Texas, though they can be hard to spot during the day, unless you find their day-time hiding spots.
Another great distinguishing feature of this night bird in Texas are its loud squawking bird sounds, which it utters at dusk when it flies out from its roost.
The mating season is marked by a change in appearance of this heron, with the black color of the head and back transforming into a glossy greenish blue.
In addition, the lores become black, while their feet take on a pink or crimson hue.
Black-crowned Night Herons are social birds, and usually nest in colonies that share the same nesting tree.
Scientific name: Nyctanassa violacea
The Yellow-crowned Night-Heron is not quite as nocturnal as its Black-crowned relative, and can be seen foraging both during the day and the night.
These herons are most commonly found in marshy areas of Texas, where they forage for food in shallow water
While crustaceans make up the bulk of the Yellow-crowned Night-Herons’ diet, they also eat fish, insects, snails, reptiles, amphibians, and rodents.
These herons are summer visitors in southeastern parts of Texas, but spend the winter in Central America.
Scientific name: Egretta tricolor
The Tricolored Heron used to be called the Louisiana Heron, and is a medium-sized wading bird with a blue-gray upper side and chest, as well as a white belly.
It is a regular breeding bird in Texas, where it is most often found in estuaries and salt water marshes along the Gulf Coast.
While Tricolored Herons like to nest in colonies, sometimes forming colonies with other heron species, they often forage alone and are fiercely protective of their territory.
These herons consume fish, crustaceans, amphibians, and insects, and will drive away other wading birds that invade their habitat.
This Texas shorebird hunts in shallow waters, usually by patiently waiting until its prey comes within reach.
Scientific name: Botaurus lentiginosus
American Bitterns are small herons that live in marshes and swamps, and are extremely well camouflaged to blend in with aquatic vegetation.
They can blend in with the reeds surrounding them thanks to their mottled brown patterning, as well as the way they hold their heads pointed upwards while remaining still amid the reeds.
Bitterns have a neck that is similar in length to the rest of their body, which they use to catch small fish and other animals in shallow water.
Since these Texas water birds are very secretive, the best way to identify a bittern is by its call, which sounds similar to “oonk-ka-oonk.”
American Bitterns eat a wide variety of aquatic organisms, including fish, crabs, insects, frogs, and small rodents.
They wait patiently in the reeds for their prey to approach before making a swift, quiet dash forward to catch it in their bills.
These herons are winter birds along the Texas Gulf Coast.
Scientific name: Ixobrychus exilis
The Least Bittern is hard to spot, since it usually remains hidden in dense reed beds. The best way to identify one of these herons is by its coo-coo-coo call.
If you do get your eyes on these herons you’ll be pleasantly surprised by the attractive orange and black color of these Texas birds.
The best places to see these herons are Texas marshes and wetlands with dense vegetation, where they can be observed hunting at the edges of open water.
These herons are most active at dawn and at dusk, when they can also be seen flying to and from their roosting trees.
Least Bitterns feed on fish, amphibians, molluscs, insects, and even rodents..
They forage by grasping individual reeds with their claws while waiting for small aquatic animals to pass by in the water underneath them.
These herons perch on the reeds and bend their bodies in all sorts of ways to reach their meal floating below.
Scientific name: Egretta rufescens
The Reddish Egret is a heron of shallow saltwater habitats in coastal areas of the Texas Gulf Coast, where they are year-round residents.
These herons have an unusual foraging tactic when compared to other herons. They hunt for small fish on salt flats at low tide.
But instead of patiently waiting for fish to come within striking distance, Reddish Egrets pursue their prey rapidly on foot, and wave their wings to startle prey.
Sometimes these herons even take to the air in order to swoop down on it.
These small herons have a dark morph and a white morph. The best way to identify them is by their bi-colored bill, which is yellow at the base, and black at the tip.
The dark morph of the Reddish Egret that has a bluish-gray body and a cinnamon-colored head, throat, and breasts.
And there we have the herons found in the state of Texas.
The varied habitats of Texas are home to more than 600 different species of birds, and herons make up a significant proportion of this rich avifauna.
Ranging from herons to egrets and bitterns, birds of the heron family play a vital role in the ecology of their habitats.
If you enjoyed this article, check out our guide to the common birds of Texas.